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The Process Of Applied Biosystems PCR

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The Process Of Applied Biosystems PCR

PCR or polymerase chain reaction is a process that is used to generate large amounts of DNA or RNA from relatively small segments of the original material. This allows researchers to utilize specialized equipment, such as the Applied Biosystems PCR instruments to amplify even small amounts of DNA to provide enough material for testing.

The Role of PCR

Using the process, it is possible to create millions of copies of a particular segment of DNA quickly, effectively and without any contamination or introduction of outside material. This process has been used since its early development in 1983 in research labs and testing facilities around the world.

Applied Biosystems PCR instruments are used in a great number of those world-class testing facilities. This equipment can be found in research facilities, in forensic labs as well as in DNA profiling and analysis facilities.

The Process

Applied Biosystems PCR instruments are available to provide both real-time as well as digital PCR. Both can be used in a lab, but there are different instruments designed for specific requirements.

Each type of Applied Biosystems PCR instrument will use a similar type of process. It will be completed in three different stages with different equipment capable of completing the full PCR process in less than an hour if required.

The main stages or steps include denaturing, where higher temperatures cause the bond between the two strands of DNA to break apart, providing two exact copies. Then, the annealing stage follows including cooling the solution containing the DNA strands down to allow primer strands of DNA to attach to the originals. Temperatures have to be precisely controlled during these stages and throughout the amplification.

These processes take just a few seconds; then the solution is heated up to 72 degrees Celsius to allow the polymerase enzyme to begin the replication process by adding the appropriate DNA bases. This is called the extending stage. The cycle is then repeated as often as necessary to produce the sample size required.

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